## Mental Calculation

Mental Arithmetic is a form of calculation that does not involve use of any physical or external gadgets / instruments such as a calculator , paper , pencil or a computer. It (calculations) is solely done by human mind using mental power or performing mathematical calculations mentally. According to scientific studies and research mental abilities in children must be developed by the age of 12.

- The mental calculation is defined as calculation of number conception and the way of imaging the abacus calculation in brain is called as the mental arithmetic by image of abacus.
- In recent years we have been discussing and studying the mental arithmetic by image of abacus which is more advantageous than other skills in the light of the result of examination.
- The mental arithmetic by image of abacus means that we calculate on the abacus in our brain without seeing the Physical ABACUS

**What are the objectives of mental arithmetic education?**

- Train and inculcate in children the habit of careful deduction based on careful observation.
- Train and inculcate in children the habit of good memory and recall of data with maximum efficiency and minimum possible effort
- Train and inculcate in children the habit of using multiple skills simultaneously with maximum efficiency and minimum economy.
- Train and inculcate in children the importance of sound reasoning and original thinking.
- Expand the children’s mental prowess and faculties and thus to uplift their morale.

**What are the mental arithmetic methods ?**

Mental arithmetic is a skill that can be cultivated initially by adopting the pen or bead. In the pen method we use pen and paper to perform the calculation. In the bead method we use an **imaginary abacus in our minds** to calculate and arrive at the answer. UCMAS adopts the later method, using an abacus. We can use the bead method to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The different methods of calculation can be divided into :

**Dictation**

This is also called “Mental arithmetic calculation through listening’ to the sum/problem “. Someone will read aloud the numbers and the listener will perform the calculation.**Observation**

The person will use the numbers that he sees and imagines the numbers to be the beads on an abacus. He will use this imaginary abacus to perform the calculation.**Silent Dication**The person will dictate the number to himself silently and use an imaginary abacus to perform the calculation.

**Mental arithmetic skill is an inborn talent.**

Some people think that only intelligent people can master mental arithmetic. In actual fact, as long as a person has learnt how to manipulate the beads in an abacus, it will be easy for him to master mental arithmetic. Therefore, as long as someone practices the lessons diligently, he/she can master this skill.

**It****takes only a short time to master mental arithmetic.**

Like learning any other skills, one needs to work systematically at mastering mental arithmetic. It involves many steps or levels of learning. Every level requires solid practices. It means learning patiently through trial and error as one sits for the tests at each level, only then can one achieve perfection. It is our aim that by teaching mental arithmetic in **interesting, simple and lively classes,** students will acquire the skills easily and shorten the learning process

**Mental Calculation**

- The mental calculation is defined as calculation of number conception and the way of imaging the abacus manipulation / calculation in brain is called as the mental arithmetic by image of abacus.
- In recent years discussions were on studying mental arithmetic by image of abacus, and the methodology is more advantageous than other skills in the light of the result of examination.
- The mental arithmetic by image of abacus means that we calculate on the abacus in our brain without seeing the Physical ABACUS